TIL Therapy

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy is a promising approach to cancer treatment. It involves extracting immune cells, specifically T cells, from a patient’s tumor tissue. These T cells are then grown and multiplied in a laboratory before being reintroduced into the patient’s body.

The goal is to enhance the immune system’s ability to recognize and attack cancer cells effectively. TIL therapy is considered a form of adoptive cell transfer, leveraging the patient’s own immune response against the tumor.

This personalized immunotherapy holds potential for treating various cancers and is an active area of research and clinical development in oncology.

Feb 2024: A novel cellular immunotherapy is now offered to patients with advanced melanoma. It’s known as TIL therapy, which stands for tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte therapy. The one-time T-cell therapy injection employs a patient’s own immune cells to combat cancer. This is the first time a cell treatment for solid tumors has received FDA approval.

Clinical study data suggest that the one-time medication had a 36% response rate in individuals with metastatic melanoma, which is a good outcome considering that this therapy was tested in patients whose illness worsened after undergoing various types of immunotherapy. Patients have also experienced long-term responses, lasting well over two years.

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy is a cutting-edge immunotherapy approach that uses the patient’s immune system to battle cancer. This novel treatment is classified as adoptive cell transfer (ACT), in which a patient’s immune cells are removed, manipulated, or amplified in a lab before being reintroduced into the patient to target and eradicate cancer cells.

How TIL therapy works?

TIL treatment includes collecting T-lymphocytes (T-cells) from a surgically excised tumor. These cells are then boosted in a laboratory to improve their ability to combat cancer by selecting and multiplying the most powerful T-cells. These cells are reintroduced into the patient by infusion following induction chemotherapy. The newly supercharged T-cells go throughout the body, attacking and killing tumor cells.

Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocyte (TIL) therapy

What is the process of TIL therapy?

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy is a revolutionary form of immunotherapy that harnesses the patient’s immune system to efficiently attack cancer. Here is a full summary of the procedure involved in TIL therapy based on data acquired from many sources:

Extraction of T-lymphocytes: TIL therapy begins with the harvest of T cells from a surgically excised tumor. These T-cells are critical components of the immune system, identifying and eliminating cancer cells.

Laboratory Enhancement: The retrieved T-cells are then transported to a laboratory, where they are modified and amplified to improve their potential to combat cancer. This procedure entails picking the most potent T-cells and replicating them to build a more powerful immune system.

Infusion Back into the Patient: Once the TILs have been effectively expanded to billions of cells, they are reintroduced into the patient by infusion. These supercharged T-cells are programmed to identify and attack cancer cells while protecting healthy cells.

Induction Chemotherapy: Prior to the infusion of TILs, patients often receive a one-week course of chemotherapy to allow the newly introduced T-cells to expand successfully within the body. This phase is critical for increasing the therapeutic potential of TIL treatment.

Treatment Duration: Unlike many other cancer treatments that require continuous care, TIL therapy is typically administered only once. However, if patients have previously benefited from TIL therapy and require additional treatment, a second round of therapy may be considered.

TIL therapy has generally modest adverse effects, with frequent symptoms including fever, chills, and shortness of breath. These side effects are frequently ascribed to other components of the therapy regimen rather than TIL cells themselves.

TIL therapy differs from CAR-T cell therapy in that it grows TILs directly from a tumor rather than genetically modifying them. Furthermore, TIL products are polyclonal, including several T-cell clones capable of targeting a wide spectrum of tumor antigens.

To summarize, TIL therapy is a promising method for cancer treatment since it efficiently uses the patient’s immune system to battle cancer. This novel medication has tremendous potential for treating a variety of malignancies and provides new hope for patients who have not responded to traditional immunotherapies.

You may like to read: TIL therapy in China

TIL therapy clinical trials

Progress and Usage of TIL therapy

Dr. Steven Rosenberg successfully treated mouse malignancies with autologous TILs in the late 1980s, when he first developed TIL therapy. Since then, TIL therapy has advanced substantially, showing great effectiveness in specific solid tumors, especially melanoma, cervical cancer, and colorectal cancer.

Grit Biotechnology, headquartered in Shanghai, secured \$60 million in Series B funding to advance the development of its TIL candidates, with a primary emphasis on melanoma, cervical, and lung cancer. These efforts are in line with worldwide patterns in TIL therapy, which is more frequently incorporating combination treatments with other immunotherapies, like immune checkpoint blocking drugs.

Recent studies have emphasized that the composition and location of TILs within tumors are crucial factors affecting prognosis and treatment results. Comprehending the intricate relationships between TILs and the tumor microenvironment is crucial for enhancing TIL therapy tailored to specific tumor types and refining patient categorization.

How is TIL therapy different from immunotherapy?

Differences Between TIL Therapy and Other Types of Immunotherapy

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy stands out from other immunotherapy techniques because of its distinct properties and mechanisms. Here are the significant differences between TIL treatment and other kinds of immunotherapy, based on information acquired from credible sources:

1. Cell Source and Modification: – TIL treatment is the process of collecting T-cells directly from a tumor that has been excised during surgery. These cells are then cultivated in a laboratory without genetic manipulation, which improves their natural capacity to target cancer cells.
CAR-T Cell Therapy: In contrast, CAR-T cell therapy reprograms a patient’s T-cells in a lab to recognize specific proteins on cancer cells. These genetically modified cells are then reintroduced into the patient to combat cancer cells.

2. Target Cancer Types: TIL treatment has been beneficial in treating solid tumors like head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, lung cancer, and gynecological malignancies. It is especially effective for malignancies that have spread to other regions of the body.
CAR-T Cell therapy: CAR-T cell therapy is generally used to treat blood malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma by targeting specific markers on cancer cells. TIL treatment, on the other hand, may be more effective against solid tumors because it can detect a wider spectrum of tumor markers.

3. Mechanism of Action:  TILs are naturally occurring immune cells that enter tumors and are subsequently expanded in the lab before being returned to the patient’s body. These cells target a wide range of tumor antigens seen in solid tumors.
CAR-T Cell Therapy: CAR-T cells are designed to express chimeric antigen receptors that specifically detect antigens on cancer cells. This therapy is extremely specific to recognized antigens found in blood cancer cells.

4. Treatment Duration and Side Effects: -TIL therapy is typically administered once, with patients receiving induction chemotherapy prior to the TIL infusion. Typically, TIL therapy’s side effects are negligible and frequently stem from other elements of the treatment plan rather than the TIL cells themselves.
CAR-T Cell Therapy: CAR-T cell therapy may necessitate several infusions and can result in significant adverse effects such as cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity due to the fast stimulation of immune responses.

In summary, TIL therapy and CAR-T cell therapy are both adoptive cell transfer immunotherapies, however, they differ greatly in terms of immune cell source, target cancer types, mechanism of action, and related adverse effects. TIL therapy is a potential method for cancer treatment because of its broad application against solid tumors and reliance on naturally existing immune responses.

You may like to read: CAR T-Cell therapy in China

Diseases effectively treated with TIL therapy

If you have been diagnosed with melanoma, even if your melanoma is metastatic or has spread, there is hope. New advanced treatment make late advanced melanoma survivable. One of the most effective treatment is tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) immunotherapy.

What are the side-effects of TIL therapy?

While tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy is a promising treatment for cancer, it can have a number of negative effects.

Here is a complete description of the probable negative effects linked with TIL therapy based on information from credible sources:

1. Immediate Side Effects:

-Fever and Chills. Patients may develop high fevers and chills upon TIL infusion.
– Nausea and Loss of Appetite: Some people may experience nausea and a decrease in appetite after TIL therapy.
– Neurological Symptoms: Headaches, dizziness, and other nervous system problems may occur.
– Fatigue: Patients may have extreme tiredness and weakness as a result of the treatment.
– Fluid Retention: The body can accumulate fluids, causing swelling.

2. Chemotherapy related Side Effects:

-Low Blood Counts: Chemotherapy prior to TIL infusion may result in low blood counts, requiring blood transfusions.
Infections: A weakened immune system during chemotherapy increases susceptibility to infections.
-Hairloss: Some people may develop hair loss as a result of conditioning chemotherapy.
– Mouth sores: Chemotherapy can cause mouth sores.

3. Long-Term Monitoring:

– A multidisciplinary team of oncologists, nurse practitioners, and other doctors closely monitors patients undergoing TIL therapy for potential problems.
– Follow-up appointments include monitoring blood counts, checking for problems, and performing imaging scans to determine tumor response.

4. Management Strategies:

TIL therapy adverse effects are minimized with regular monitoring and post-treatment care.
– Medical oncologists provide thorough advice on how to manage side effects and complications.

5. TIL therapy differs from CAR-T cell therapy in that it uses naturally occurring T-cells taken from tumors, rather than genetically altering them in a lab. The negative effects of TIL therapy are frequently attributable to other components in the treatment regimen rather than the TIL cells themselves.

In conclusion, while TIL therapy holds great promise for cancer treatment, patients must be mindful of the potential negative effects of this novel immunotherapy strategy. Close monitoring by healthcare professionals and attention to post-treatment care guidelines are critical for successfully managing these adverse effects.

What is the cost of TIL therapy?

The cost of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte (TIL) therapy varies depending on a number of criteria. Here’s a summary of the projected costs connected with TIL therapy based on information acquired from credible sources:

1. Cost Breakdown:

Screening: Physical scans, blood tests, and consultations typically cost roughly \$ 3000.
Isolation of TILs: This phase requires surgery, hospitalization days, and consultations, and costs an average of $ 4000 USD.
TIL Production: The production expenses vary between $ 40,000 and $ 60,000, depending on the number of productions per year (10 or 5 patients).

2. Estimated Total Cost: The early estimate for treating one patient with TIL treatment is around $ 65,000.
In countries like the United States, the estimated cost of TIL treatment ranges from \$97,600 to \$168,440 per patient.

For Canada and the United Kingdom, the cost ranges are C$89,072-C$116,295 and £32,945-£60,608, respectively.

As per the current patient experience and data, TIL therapy will cost around $ 125,000 USD in Israel and anything between $ 60-125,000 USD in China. The cost of TIL therapy differs greatly with the type and stage of cancer. As this therapy is still in the clinical trial stage, a fixed cost estimation is almost impossible.

3. Factors Affecting Costs: – TIL therapy costs are impacted by production and administration.
– The construction of manufacturing facilities and competence in cell therapy can have an impact on overall prices.

4. Cost-Effectiveness: – TIL therapy is cost-effective compared to other treatments such as ipilimumab.

5. Availability and Regulatory hurdles: – TIL treatment is only offered in specialized centers worldwide through clinical trials or early access programs due to regulatory and manufacturing hurdles.

6. Side Effects Management: – Common side effects of TIL therapy include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and exhaustion. These adverse effects are regularly evaluated by healthcare specialists throughout treatment.

In conclusion, while Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte (TIL) therapy shows potential in cancer treatment, it has high expenses that vary depending on location and treatment procedures. Close monitoring of side effects and appropriate management are critical components of the entire therapy plan.

Ongoing research and future outlook

While TIL treatment is currently considered experimental, researchers are investigating its usefulness in various cancer types. The treatment’s success rate, particularly in melanoma instances, has motivated additional research into its possible use for a broader range of malignancies. Researchers are also investigating the prospect of storing TIL cells for later use as a “top-up” treatment if cancer returns.

To summarize, TIL therapy is a significant advancement in cancer treatment, providing new hope to patients who have not responded to traditional immunotherapies. This therapy has great potential for the future of oncology due to its capacity to successfully target and eradicate cancer cells using the body’s immune system.

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TIL therapy in China costs around 125,000 USD, depending on the type and stage of the disease and the hospital chosen.

Please send us your medical reports, and we will get back to you with details of the treatment, hospital, and cost estimate.