Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the digestive tract that is highly malignant and difficult to diagnose and treat. About 90% is ductal adenocarcinoma that originates in the ductal epithelium. Its morbidity and mortality rates have increased significantly in recent years. The 5-year survival rate is <1%, which is one of the malignant tumors with the worst prognosis. The early diagnosis rate of pancreatic cancer is not high, the surgical mortality is high, and the cure rate is very low. The incidence of this disease is higher in males than in females , with a male to female ratio of 1.5 to 2: 1. Male patients are much more common than premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women have similar incidences as men.
Who is at high risk for pancreatic cancer?
Because pancreatic cancer is mostly middle-aged and elderly people, they often have a history of smoking, so they must pay attention to quit smoking, pay special attention to the harm of second-hand smoke, and reduce the number of places such as chess and card rooms. It has been known that heavy drinking also damages the pancreas, and attention should be given to restraining drinking, timely treatment of acute and chronic pancreatitis and biliary tract diseases, and H. pylori positive people should also be treated in time.
Develop healthy eating habits, eat less high-fat, high-calorie, smoked and grilled fried foods and pickled foods, eat four legs (cattle, sheep, pig), eat two legs (chicken, duck, goose) ), Legless (fish and shrimp) food, eat more coarse grains, vegetables and fruits, especially eat broccoli, cruciferous vegetables (green vegetables), which contains isothiocyanate substances, can prevent chemical substances induced DNA Injuries and various tumors.
Adhere to moderate physical exercise, outdoor aerobic activities in the sun can promote the body to produce binding proteins. The binding protein has anti-oxidation and anti-tumor effects.
In addition, green tea also contains anti-oxidant ingredients and should be consumed regularly.
1. Age over 40 years old, with non-specific upper abdominal discomfort.
2. A family history of pancreatic cancer.
3. Sudden diabetes, especially atypical diabetes, over 60 years old, lack of family history, no obesity, and quickly develop insulin resistance. 40% of pancreatic cancer patients are diagnosed with diabetes.
4. Chronic pancreatitis patients. Currently, chronic pancreatitis is an important precancerous lesion in a small number of patients, especially chronic familial pancreatitis and chronic calcifying pancreatitis.
5. Intraductal papillary myxoma is also a precancerous lesion.
6. Those with familial adenomatous polyposis.
7. Those who underwent distal gastrectomy for benign lesions, especially those who are more than 20 years after surgery.
8. Long-term smoking, heavy drinking, and long-term exposure to harmful chemicals. The risk factors for pancreatic cancer are complex, with endogenous (family history, genetic mutation) and exogenous (environment, diet and other factors). A study published in the journal Nature in 2010 pointed out that normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells gradually evolve into cancer. It takes 9 years from genetic mutation to the formation of a real tumor cell, 8 years from the development of a tumor cell to a cell mass with metastatic ability, and the death from tumor discovery to tumor is less than 2 years. Therefore, the adverse factors that cause cell malignancy should be avoided as much as possible to prevent the occurrence of pancreatic cancer.
1. Smoking: It is currently recognized as a high-risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Studies have shown that the risk ratio of smoking pancreatic cancer patients to non-smokers is 1.6-3.1: 1. Studies have shown that carcinogens in tobacco leaves can cause cancer of the pancreatic duct epithelium.
2. Unhealthy diet: The World Cancer Research Foundation and the American Cancer Institute summarized the relationship between diet and pancreatic cancer. It is believed that foods rich in red meat (pig, beef, lamb), high fat and high energy may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer, and the intake of a diet rich in vegetables and fruits can prevent 33% to 50% of pancreatic cancer Morbidity.
3. Genetic factors: The incidence of pancreatic cancer is 3-13 times that of people with a family history compared to those without a family history. It is reported that one person in the family has the disease, and the risk of pancreatic cancer among other family members is 4 times that of the general population If 2 people get sick, it will increase to 12 times, and 3 people get up to 40 times. Some researchers have come across multiple pancreatic cancer families of mother and daughter, father and son, siblings, and grandchildren.
4. Chronic lesions of the pancreas: Recurrent episodes of chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic duct stones or calculous pancreatitis have a tendency to become cancerous, and can be considered as a precancerous lesion. Attention should be paid to the treatment of primary disease and follow-up should be carried out closely. The onset is also related to the human body’s own diseases, such as chronic pancreatic diseases and oral diseases.
5. Diabetes: The study found that diabetic patients are twice as likely to have pancreatic cancer as the normal population. The incidence of diabetes in pancreatic cancer patients is almost twice that of the normal population. Therefore, patients without a family history of diabetes suddenly find that they must be carefully checked to rule out pancreatic cancer.
6. Benign pancreatic tumor: Like other organs, the pancreas also has many benign tumors. For example: serous or mucinous cystadenoma, solid pseudopapillary tumor, intraductal mucinous papilloma, etc., which can also be transformed into pancreatic cancer, especially mucinous papilloma and intraductal mucinous papilloma.
7. Oral diseases: Studies have shown that dental caries and other oral inflammatory diseases can also increase the incidence of pancreatic cancer.
8. Others: Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, benign lesions undergoing distal gastrectomy, biliary tract disease, gallbladder surgical resection, and Helicobacter pylori positive will also increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.